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Reith Lectures Archive: 1948-1975 Podcast

Reith Lectures Archive: 1948-1975 Podcast

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Running Time
30 Min.

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BBC Radio now is offering the entire archive of their annual Reith lectures for free online on their site and as a podcast. The lectures feature leading intellectual figures discussing significant contemporary issues. The lectures started in 1948 with philosopher Bertrand Russell discussing the topic of "Authority and the Individual" in six lectures and all these lectures are featured on the 1948-1975 podcast.


Other great thinkers on the podcast include physicist Robert Oppenheimer (1953), economist John Kenneth Galbraith (1966), historian Daniel J. Boorstin (1975), philosopher John Searle (1984), military historian John Keegan (1998), neuroscientist Vilayanur Ramachandran (2003), economist Jeffrey Sachs (2007), and political philosopher Michael Sandel (2009). For some of the speakers all of their lectures are included on the podcast feed while other just have one lecture on there. Enjoy these lectures from some of the greatest thinkers of the past 60 years.


Description

Series of annual radio lectures on significant contemporary issues, delivered by leading figures from the relevant fields.


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The Birth of Exploration

Author: BBC RadiAuthor: o 4
Wed, Nov 12, 1975


This year's Reith lecturer is distinguished Professor of American history, Dr Daniel J Boorstin, the twelfth Librarian of Congress. In his Reith lectures, entitled 'America and the World Experience', he explores how the USA developed into the superpower it is today. In this first lecture entitled 'The Birth of Exploration', Dr Boorstin explains why the desire to journey to new and undiscovered lands was important in the development of the United States of America. He considers the difference between a 'frontier' and 'the wilderness' for the first colonisers of the continent and explains how a community spirit of adventure made it all possible.

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On Difference

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Dec 04, 1974


Professor of Sociology and Director of the London School of Economics Ralf Dahrendorf gives his fourth Reith lecture from his series entitled 'The New Liberty'. In this lecture entitled 'On Difference', Professor Ralf Dahrendorf discusses the concept of diversity and averages. Evaluating the socialist philosophies of different countries, he dissects the averages that are found in society and contemplates what will happen when developing countries try to reassess their status as developed countries.

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Justice Without Bondage

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Nov 27, 1974


Professor of Sociology and Director of the London School of Economics Ralf Dahrendorf gives his third Reith lecture from his series entitled 'The New Liberty'. In this lecture entitled 'Justice Without Bondage', Professor Dahrendorf evaluates how liberty has been misinterpreted as equality and justice. He claims that advanced demographic societies are bound by a fear of political correctness. In this age, which he describes as 'the alienation of the enlightened progress', he argues that we have become the prisoners of our own good purpose. Society has taken the notion of justice and replaced it with equality. He contemplates whether we can weather the storm of 'social justice' in order to progress to a 'liberal justice' system.

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The Liberal Option

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Nov 20, 1974


Professor of Sociology and Director of the London School of Economics Ralf Dahrendorf gives his second Reith lecture from his series entitled 'The New Liberty'. In this lecture entitled 'The Liberal Option', Professor Dahrendorf explores the liberal options available to society. He questions why recognised problems in society, which also have visible solutions, do not make any great progress. Who is it that prevents this potential from being realised? To answer these questions he explores how social-economic structures affect our liberty.

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From Expansion to Improvement

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Nov 13, 1974


This year's Reith lecturer is the eminent German-British sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf. Previously a Professor of Sociology at the Universities of Hamburg, Tübingen and Konstanz, he has been a leading figure for liberal politics and an authority on class divisions in modern society. In 1970 he became the European Commissioner in Brussels before taking over as Director of the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1974. In his Reith series entitled 'The New Liberty', he questions the definition of freedom. In his first Reith lecture entitled 'From Expansion to Improvement', Ralf Dahrendorf argues that we should think about autonomy in a new light. He explores how philosophy, sociology and economics all affect our elemental desires and the definition of freedom. He reflects on the evolution of liberty and questions how we could improve our lives.

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The Search For A New Order

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Dec 19, 1973


Alastair Francis Buchan, the Montague Burton Professor of International Relations for Oxford University, explores the concept of 'transnationalism' in his sixth Reith lecture. Speaking from his series entitled 'Change without War', he concludes his lectures on international relations. In this lecture entitled 'The Search for a New Order', Professor Alastair Buchan speculates whether we might be able to control and adapt the dynamic process of change in order to reduce the eruptions of conflict around the globe. He explores whether functional co-operation and changes in national attitudes could lead to a more open, transnational society.

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The Troubled Giant

Author: BBC Radio 4
Wed, Nov 28, 1973


Alastair Francis Buchan, the Montague Burton Professor of International Relations for Oxford University, reflects on the global power of the United States of America in his third Reith lecture. Speaking from his series entitled 'Change without War', he reflects on new international relations. In this lecture entitled 'The Troubled Giant', Professor Alastair Buchan explores why the United States of America is still the largest and strongest world power. He analyses how its decisions continue to affect the climate of world politics more than any other country and asks why this continues to be true. He examines the USA's relationship with the power structures within the Soviet Union and China, as well as looking at the triangular economic relationship between the USA, Europe and Japan.

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Wanted: An Instrument For Crisis Management

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Dec 12, 1972


Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield gives the sixth of his Reith lectures from his series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination'. In this lecture entitled 'Wanted: An Instrument for Crisis Management', Sir Shonfield considers the long-term future of the European Community. Analysing the effect of Britain's entry, he also anticipates an adaptation of the role of the European Commission into the next level of European cohesion. Sir Shonfield concludes his series by exploring the practical measures which should be taken in order to create a democratic, forward thinking and cohesive Europe.

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From Technocracy to Democracy

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Dec 05, 1972


Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield gives the fifth of his Reith lectures from his series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination'. In this lecture entitled 'From Technocracy to Democracy?', Sir Shonfield considers how the inclusion of the British into the European Community could lead to a more politically democratic form of governance. Taking this into consideration, Sir Shonfield questions whether the European Community will achieve greater democratic legitimacy.

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European Foreign Policy Towards Asia & the Soviet Bloc

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Nov 28, 1972


Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield gives the fourth of his Reith lectures from his series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination'. In this lecture entitled 'A European Foreign Policy towards Asia and the Soviet Bloc', Sir Shonfield explores the policy problems of the enlarged European Community in relation to the rest of the world. Shonfield explores how external economic relations and different foreign policies must be created for different areas. Exploring how this could be done, Sir Shonfield analyses industrial powers like Japan, underdeveloped countries in the Indian sub-continent and problematic Eastern European countries.

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The American Connection

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Nov 21, 1972


Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield gives the third of his Reith lectures from his series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination'. In this lecture entitled 'The American Connection: a Grumbling Alliance', Sir Shonfield explores the European Community's relations with the rest of the world and in particular, The United States. He explores how currency, business and trade all affect the working relationship between the two powers, and asks how the European attitude towards the United States might develop during the 1970s in the face of new American policy pressure.

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The French Spirit and the British Intruder

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Nov 14, 1972


Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs and political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield gives the second of his Reith lectures from his series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination'. In this lecture entitled 'The French Spirit and the British Intruder', Sir Andrew Shonfield identifies the problems in creating a European Federation. He explores how political identity is mixed up with national identity, and explains why certain countries find it harder to join the European Community than others. Looking at the British and French feelings toward the union, he argues that compromise is the only way that the European Community can work effectively.

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Melting Pot or Bag of Marbles?

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Nov 07, 1972


This year's Reith lecturer is political economist Sir Andrew Shonfield. Currently the Director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA), he has previously worked as economic editor and foreign editor for The Observer (1958–61) and the Financial Times (1947–57). After fifteen years in journalism, he became the Director of Studies at the RIIA before a brief stint as Chairman of the Social Science Research Council from1969–70. In his Reith series entitled 'Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination', he debates British entry into the European Community. In this lecture entitled 'Melting Pot or Bag of Marbles?', Sir Andrew Shonfield explores integration between the European nations and questions the reasons for of the European Community. He explores the power structures which create the Community's foundations and asks how joining the EC will affect Britain. He advances the debate about what the future will hold for all the European nations.

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A Common Ground

Author: BBC Radio 4
Tue, Dec 21, 1971


The British academic and Assistant Director General of UNESCO Richard Hoggart explores the concepts of communication in his Reith lecture series entitled 'Only connect'. In this lecture entitled 'Common Ground', Richard Hoggart evaluates the role of passing information to each other via a system of communication. He asks, now that we have developed at an almost unbelievable speed, what happens next? Are we really more in touch now than previously? How will new technologies bring us closer? Centralised mass societies are keen to show they understand the human scale but can human societies remember to interact with each other in a fundamentally kind and moral way?

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The Loss of the Stable State

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 15, 1970


This year's Reith lecturer is the influential thinker Donald Schon. Previously a Professor of philosophy at the University of California, he was the director of the Institute for Applied Technology in the National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce. He is currently the co-founder and director of the Organization for Social and Technological Innovation (OSTI), a non-profit social research and development firm in Boston. He delivers his Reith lecture on industrial technology and social change from his series entitled 'Change and the Industrial Society'. In this lecture entitled 'The Loss of the Stable State', Donald Schon describes how society needs a belief in a calm and constant identity and structure. Exploring times when this stability has been lost, he analyses the human need for the belief of a better time.

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Where Does Responsibility Lie?

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 14, 1969


The Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and renowned ecologist Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his final lecture entitled 'Where Does Responsibility Lie?', Sir Fraser Darling argues that population is almost certain to increase but pollution does not necessarily need to. He argues that technology should use its own inventiveness to decontaminate the world, but asks who would be responsible for enforcing such a policy. Without all nations taking the ethical responsibility for the environment, he concludes, it will take many years for intellectually-led change to filter through and become concrete action plans.

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The Forward Look in Conservation

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 07, 1969


The Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and renowned ecologist Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his fifth lecture entitled 'The Forward Look in Conservation', Sir Fraser Darling reflects on the art of conservation. He considers how technology and preservation of the world could work together in unison and highlights different countries' conservation contributions. He argues that science can be an enlightener if only industries and politics allow it to work.

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Global Changes - Actual and Possible

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 30, 1969


The Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and renowned ecologist Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his fourth lecture entitled 'Global Changes - Actual and Possible', Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the problem of overpopulation and its likely effect on the natural world. He considers the population problem in relation to other environmental factors such as increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, increased reliance on technology and the reduction in all natural environmental buffers. He ponders whether rises in prosperity and population might just signal the decline of the habitable world.

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The Technological Exponential

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 23, 1969


The Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and renowned ecologist Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his third lecture entitled 'The Technological Exponential', Sir Frank Fraser Darling examines the ecological consequences of technology since the industrial evolution. He reflects on the way the rapid guzzle of oil, coal and nuclear materials has affected the environment and touches on what this technology has done to Man as well. He scrutinises the enveloping character of advanced technology, and the choking side-effect of pollution.

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Impact of Man on His Environment

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 16, 1969


The Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and renowned ecologist Sir Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his second lecture entitled 'Impact of Man on His Environment', Sir Fraser Darling explores the continuous affect of man on his natural habitat. Taking examples from prehistoric man, the industrial revolution and modern day technology, he considers whether man has taken all he can from the world to increase growth and development. He explores and criticises how politics and political policies have had a lasting affect on the contamination of the world and its ecology.

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Man and Nature

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 09, 1969


This year's Reith lecturer is English ecologist, conservationist and author Sir Frank Fraser Darling. He is the current Vice-President of the Conservation Foundation in Washington, DC and his ornithological ideas have marked him as a specialist on the topic of the natural environment. He also worked as a Senior Lecturer in Ecology and Conservation at the University of Edinburgh (1953-58) and was Chief Officer at the Imperial Bureau of Animal Genetics (1930–34). He is strongly associated with the highlands of Scotland, an area which he has often studied and written about. Frank Fraser Darling explores the concept of Man's responsibility for his natural environment in his Reith series entitled 'Wilderness and Plenty'. In his first lecture entitled 'Man and Nature', he considers how humans have dominated the natural world by constantly challenging it and altering it to their advantage. However, bringing together economics and ecology, he discusses what circumstances might lead to the need to conserve the human race.

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The United States of the World

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 01, 1968


Nobel Peace Prize winner and former Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson contemplates the political world order in his Reith series entitled 'Peace in the Family of Man'. In this lecture entitled 'The United States of the World', Lester Pearson contemplates the concept of nationalism. What is a national identity? How can we dispel the emotions and prejudices which are wrapped up in it? And how does internationalism change our perspectives? He explores why we create nations and explores how the concept is used at a political and social level.

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'Only Connect...'

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 17, 1967


This year's Reith lecturer is the British social anthropologist Professor Edmund Leach. He is the current Provost of King's College, Cambridge and throughout his academic career he has challenged received notions about cultural change. He explores the notion of 'relational structures' in his Reith series entitled 'A Runaway World?' In this lecture entitled 'Only Connect', Professor Leach concludes his series by explaining the interconnectedness of humans with the natural world. He warns that without a fluid collective identity we might irrevocably destroy our environment and species. He argues that everyone needs to understand where they fit in to the system, and provide a collective attitude of protection by communicating with each other. He suggests that educating and stimulating the young to enlarge their expectations in imaginative ways could lead to a better future. He warns that whenever we assert dominance over the universe, we must also remember the interconnectedness of the universe. The good and the bad, the weak and the strong; all have a right to exist.

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Ourselves and Others

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 26, 1967


This year's Reith lecturer is the British social anthropologist Professor Edmund Leach. He is the current Provost of King's College, Cambridge and throughout his academic career he has challenged received notions about cultural change. He explores the notion of 'relational structures' in his Reith series entitled 'A Runaway World?' In this lecture entitled 'Ourselves and Others', Professor Edmund Leach asks why we kill each other. Where does our fear of the 'Other' come from? He explores how separation from nature and our neighbours has created this anxiety. He moves on examine how the composition of society has changed, asking why there is a generation gap and the consequential problems with the nuclear family. He questions how we can connect with others, and dispel the fear which constrains us.

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The Role of the State

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 04, 1966


Professor John Kenneth Galbraith is the Paul M Warburg Professor of Economics at Harvard University and is the author of 'The Affluent Society'. In his Reith series entitled 'The New Industrial State', he explores the economics of production. In this lecture entitled 'The Role of the State', Professor Galbraith explores the relationship states have with large Corporations. He argues that the state and private industry are moving closer together and warns there is a danger that the state could become too involved with industry, and consequently policies could be influenced by these corporations. Galbraith looks at what the state should be providing for its citizens.

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Economic Meetings

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 28, 1965


Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Robert Gardiner discusses the issues of race in his Reith series entitled 'A World of Peoples'. Born in Ghana, he has worked as the Head of the Ghana Civil Service, is a former Deputy Executive Secretary for the Economic Commission for Africa and has authored the book 'Development of Social Administration'. In this lecture entitled 'Economic Meetings', Robert Gardiner explores how economic inequalities affect race relations. He analyses how race can interfere with economic forces by looking at economies for countries where different races live together. He asks, is there race equality within economics?

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Contemporary Racial Moods

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 21, 1965


Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Robert Gardiner discusses the issues of race in his Reith series entitled 'A World of Peoples'. Born in Ghana, he has worked as the Head of the Ghana Civil Service, is a former Deputy Executive Secretary for the Economic Commission for Africa and has authored the book 'Development of Social Administration'. In this lecture entitled 'Contemporary Racial Moods', Robert Gardiner explains why the concept of race resists precise definition and why race theorists persist in searching for proofs of racial differences in mentality. He explores myths which purport to explain racial differences by investigating past history and current frustrations. He provides examples of misconceived ideas by both white and black people and asks, how much of the colour conflict is due to fear? And if these fears were gone, would there be a chance of solving racial problems?

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Industrial And Economic Consequences

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 13, 1964


Leading British industrialist and pioneer of automation Sir Leon Bagrit continues his Reith lectures. He is the Chairman and Managing Director of Elliott Automation Ltd, one of the first companies in Europe devoted to automation, and speaks on this topic in his series entitled 'The Age of Automation'. In this lecture entitled 'Automation: Industrial and Economic Consequences', Sir Bagrit asks how we can put automation into practice at a national level. How should it be assimilated in the lives of the British citizens? Sir Bagrit argues that the development of new machines will lead to a golden age of mass comfort and opportunity. Thus, he claims, technological advancement needs to be quickened and not slowed.

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The Fulfilment of Lives

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 01, 1963


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Albert E Sloman, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Essex. He was previously Gilmour Professor of Spanish at Liverpool University and Dean of the Faculty of Arts. Dr Sloman explores what is needed to make an institute for higher education in Essex in his series entitled 'A University in the Making'. In this lecture entitled 'The Fulfilment of Lives', Dr Sloman explores how the newly built University of Essex will create accommodation for its students. Putting forward his concept of social cohesion for the college in the town of Colchester, he explains how small apartments, integrated recreational areas for students and lecturers and large sport areas will allow for the perfect work/life balance.

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Vicissitudes of Adolescence

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 25, 1962


Professor of Psychological Medicine at the University of Edinburgh Professor George Carstairs contemplates the patterns of social anthropology in his Reith series 'This Island Now'. In this lecture entitled 'Vicissitudes of Adolescence', Professor Carstairs explores how violence and sex have been linked to teenage behaviour. Are adolescents more sexually promiscuous? Are teenagers more aggressive? To answer these questions he discusses his own field research in India to compare Hindu communities to British ones, in order to consider how social class affects teenage behaviour.

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The Problem of White Settlement

Author: BBC Radio 4
Thu, Dec 07, 1961


African affairs writer and lecturer Margery Perham discusses the effects of colonialism in tropical Africa. In 1939 she became the first female fellow of Nuffield College at Oxford University before being appointed as Director of the Oxford Institute of Colonial Studies in 1945. In her Reith series entitled 'The Colonial Reckoning', she highlights problems of colonial rule. In this lecture entitled 'The Problem of White Settlement', she considers the problem of the European colonists, and the delicate question of race relations.

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African Nationalism

Author: BBC Radio 4
Thu, Nov 23, 1961


African affairs writer and lecturer Margery Perham discusses the effects of colonialism in tropical Africa. In 1939 she became the first female fellow of Nuffield College at Oxford University before being appointed as Director of the Oxford Institute of Colonial Studies in 1945. In her Reith series entitled 'The Colonial Reckoning', she highlights problems of colonial rule. In this lecture entitled 'African Nationalism', she explores the positive side of anti-colonialism, which is emancipation. She discusses how and why this force has started and tries to explain how it has led to African freedom from British and French rule. She analyses some of the converging events and influences which have turned the world into a hot-house for the forced and rapid growth of African nationalism.

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The Mechanization of Art

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 11, 1960


This year's lecturer is the first and current Professor of Art History at Oxford University, Edgar Wind. The German-born British professor specialises in iconology in the Renaissance era. In his Reith Series entitled 'Art and Anarchy', Edgar Wind explores the concepts of creative energies produced through turmoil. In this lecture entitled 'The Mechanization of Art', Edgar Wind considers how machines have influenced art. He untangles conflicting opinions of how mechanics have influenced the production and evaluation of art now that works can be reproduced and multiplied. Professor Wind discusses how our experience of art is affected by the techniques of multiplication, and acknowledges that the creation, preservation and display of art can show signs of a mechanised style.

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The Fear of Knowledge

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 04, 1960


This year's lecturer is the first and current Professor of Art History at Oxford University, Edgar Wind. The German-born British professor specialises in iconology in the Renaissance era. In his Reith Series entitled 'Art and Anarchy', Edgar Wind explores the concepts of creative energies produced through turmoil. In this lecture entitled 'The Fear of Knowledge', Edgar Wind challenges the idea that intellect hurts the artistic imagination. This prejudice, which artists themselves have rarely shared, does not allow for the aesthetic perception of art to be heightened. He argues that art and intellect should not be separated into one or the other, because together they have created some of the greatest works of art.

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Future of Man

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 20, 1959


This year's Reith lecturer is the Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College London, Peter Brian Medawar. His work on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance has been fundamental to the practice of tissue and organ transplants. In his Reith lecture series entitled 'The Future of Man', Professor PM Medawar considers how humans will continue to evolve in the future. In his sixth lecture entitled 'The Future of Man', Professor PM Medawar discusses the possibility of a new, non-genetic, system of inheritance. He predicts that certain properties and activities of the brain will affect our evolution in the future.

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The Origin of the Universe 2

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 14, 1958


This year's Reith Lecturer is Professor Bernard Lovell, the first Director of the Jodrell Bank Experimental Observatory, and Professor of Radio Astronomy at Manchester University. During the Second World War, he helped to develop radar systems for aircrafts, for which he received an OBE in 1946. He delivers six lectures on the wonders of the solar system in his series entitled 'The Individual and the Universe'. In his final lecture entitled 'The Origin of the Universe 2', Professor Bernard Lovell considers the alternative theory which science can offer on the beginning of the universe. His exploration of the continuous creation theory concludes his Reith lectures.

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The Origin of the Universe 1

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 07, 1958


This year's Reith Lecturer is Professor Bernard Lovell, the first Director of the Jodrell Bank Experimental Observatory, and Professor of Radio Astronomy at Manchester University. During the Second World War, he helped to develop radar systems for aircrafts, for which he received an OBE in 1946. He delivers six lectures on the wonders of the solar system in his series entitled 'The Individual and the Universe'. In his fifth lecture entitled 'The Origin of the Universe 1', Professor Bernard Lovell explores how we observe the horizon of the universe, and contemplates how we formulate theories in terms of known physical laws. He gives examples of evolutionary models and explains the implications of this evolutionary theory.

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The Military Problem

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 01, 1957


This year's Reith Lecturer is American adviser, diplomat, political scientist, and historian George Frost Kennan. He is best known as "the father" of the USA Containment Policy and is a leading authority on the Cold War. In his series 'Russia, the Atom, and the West', he considers the relationship between the two superpowers Russia and the USA. In his fourth lecture entitled 'The Military Problem', Professor Kennan discusses the military aspect of the West's conflict with Soviet power. He considers how atomic weapons have changed the relationship between East and West, and confronts the problem of the 'mutually assured destruction' doctrine.

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The Problem of Eastern and Central Europe

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 24, 1957


This year's Reith Lecturer is American adviser, diplomat, political scientist, and historian George Frost Kennan. He is best known as "the father" of the USA Containment Policy and is a leading authority on the Cold War. In his series 'Russia, the Atom, and the West', he considers the relationship between the two superpowers Russia and the USA. In his third lecture entitled 'The Problem of Eastern and Central Europe', Professor Kennan considers why disagreements about frontiers and the political control of territory are so potent. He explores the difficulties which have already arisen in Central and Eastern Europe over territorial conflict, and considers in detail the problems between Germany and the satellite states under Soviet rule.

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Science and Education

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 16, 1956


This year's Reith Lecturer is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh Sir Edward Appleton. From 1939 to 1949 he was Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and in 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the knowledge of the ionosphere, which led to the development of radar. In his Reith series entitled 'Science and the Nation', he considers the importance of science. In his sixth lecture entitled 'Science and Education', Professor Appleton considers how we teach science. He analyses the functions of teaching institutions, and explores how universities teach both applied and pure science.

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Industrial Science

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 09, 1956


This year's Reith Lecturer is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh Sir Edward Appleton. From 1939 to 1949 he was Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, and in 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the knowledge of the ionosphere, which led to the development of radar. In his Reith series entitled 'Science and the Nation', he considers the importance of science. In his fifth lecture entitled 'Industrial Science', Professor Appleton considers the functional uses of science. He explores the scientific research work carried out by industries in order to produce better products, and analyses how automation is expanding this kind of science.

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Architecture and Planning: The Functional Approach

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 27, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his final lecture, Dr Pevsner examines the particular aspects of Englishness which he believes are prevalent today, and what, by their means, England might achieve for her own benefit, and perhaps, that of other nations. He explores how England's towns and centres have been planned, and argues that traditional English planning theory takes into account the historical, social and aesthetic aspects of a site, as well as its pure geography.

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Constable and the Pursuit of Nature

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 20, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his sixth and penultimate Reith lecture, Dr Pevsner describes the attitude of the English Romantic painter John Constable (1776-1837) and some of his contemporaries to Italian art, and compares his Englishness with that of Blake and Hogarth. He examines the sudden flowering of English landscape painting which began with Richard Wilson (1714–1782) and his Welsh landscapes, and argues that this concentration on landscape is a direct result of the temperate English climate.

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Blake and the Planing Line

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 13, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. Dr Pevsner explores the 'Decorated Style', which seems in every respect to be the opposite of the Perpendicular style which he examined in his previous lecture. Through illustrations ranging from English church architecture from 1290-1350 to the gentle curves of painters such as Gainsborough and Reynolds, Dr Pevsner places the artist William Blake (1757-1827) in the context of a very English tradition.

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Perpendicular England

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 06, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his fourth lecture, Dr Pevsner examines the Perpendicular style, formed in England in about 1330, and which he calls 'the most English creation in architecture'. It represented a complete break with what had gone before, but once it had been established universally in the country by the 1380s, it remained virtually unchanged for 150 years, so much so that even specialists struggle to determine accurate dates for this style of work.

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Reynolds and Detachment

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Oct 30, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his third lecture, Dr Pevsner examines the work of the portrait painter Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), and argues that the far-reaching contrast between his promotion of painting in the Grand Manner, and how he actually painted, is eminently English.

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Hogarth and Observed Life

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Oct 23, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Dr Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his second lecture, Dr Pevsner considers the 'Englishness' of the artist and satirist William Hogarth (1697-1764). He explores the characteristics which he says make Hogarth a particularly English artist, and argues that his work embodies the ideals of the Age of Reason.

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The Geography of Art

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Oct 16, 1955


This year's Reith lecturer is Dr Nikolaus Pevsner, the German-born British scholar of history of art and architecture, and author of the county guide series, The Buildings of England (1951–74). In this series, Dr Pevsner explores the qualities of art which he regards as particularly English, as illustrated in the works of several English artists, and what they say about the English national character. In his first lecture, Dr Pevsner examines the reasons for the study of history of art. He argues that an understanding and appreciation of the work of the artist is truly life-enhancing, and he goes on to explore the English national character as it is expressed in terms of art.

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The Atlantic Bridge

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Nov 21, 1954


This year's Reith Lecturer is the Chairman of Lloyds Bank, Sir Oliver Franks. He is the former Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, and the former Professor of Moral Philosophy at University of Glasgow. He was the British Ambassador in Washington, DC, between 1948 and 1952, and has been described as "one of the founders of the post-war world". He delivers his Reith series entitled 'Britain and Tide of World Affairs'. In his third lecture entitled 'The Atlantic Bridge', Sir Oliver explores the relationship between the United States of America and Britain. He discusses the frictions between the two countries and their mutual interdependence. He analyses the discomforts of the passage of power, McCarthyism, and the fear that the United States will land us in a third world war.

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The Sciences and Man's Community

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 20, 1953


This year's Reith Lecturer is American theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer. Professor of Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, he has been described as the "father of the atomic bomb" for his role in the Manhattan Project while Director of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory between 1943–45. In his Reith lectures entitled 'Science and the Common Understanding', he examines the impact of quantum and atomic theory on society. In his sixth and final lecture entitled 'The Sciences and Man's Community', Professor Oppenheimer explains how the "House of Science" helps us to understand the underlying profundities of the earth and our lives. He draws parallels between the construction of human society and the atom: each man is dependent on the next, and through the power of the collective, Man's power grows with the shared knowledge of individuals.

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The Psychology of Encounters

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 14, 1952


This year's Reith Lecturer is British historian Arnold J Toynbee. The former Director of Studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, he is currently the Koraes Professor of History at London University. He considers how Europe interacts with other countries in his Reith Lecture series entitled 'The World and the West'. In his fifth lecture entitled 'The Psychology of Encounters', Professor Toynbee examines ways in which countries respond to new cultures. He argues that the most important differences are invariably rejected, but that minor "culture strands" are often allowed to flourish, thus creating a patchwork of cultural identities.

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British Rule In India

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Dec 02, 1951


This year's Reith Lecturer is British lawyer Lord Radcliffe. He was Director-General of the Ministry of Information during the Second World War, and is most famous for his role in Partition, the division of the British Indian Empire, His work led directly to the creation of Pakistan and India as independent nations. He examines the features of democratic society, and considers the problematic notions of power and authority in his series of seven Reith Lectures entitled 'Power and the State'. In his fifth Reith lecture entitled 'British Rule in India', Lord Radcliffe examines the early years of British administration in India. He argues that period until the Indian Mutiny succeeded more as a result of the character of its institutions than their excellence. He suggests this offers a classic example of how men really respond to the stimulus of great authority.

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Individual and Social Ethics

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Jan 30, 1949


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, he is the author of Principia Mathematica, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his final lecture, entitled 'Individual and Social Ethics', he relates social and political doctrines to the individual ethics by which people guide their personal lives. He argues that Man needs a sense of personal morality to guide his conduct, and must learn to be critical of tribal customs and beliefs that may be generally accepted amongst his neighbours. Primitive impulses, he says, can find harmless outlets in adventure and creation. He suggests that Man has always been subject to two miseries: firstly, those imposed by external nature which are now largely diminished by science; and secondly, those that men inflict on each other, such as through war. Russell rejects the argument that human nature demands war, believing instead that the greed for possession will lessen as the fear of destitution is removed from society.

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Control and Initiative: Their Respective Spheres

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Jan 23, 1949


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, he is the author of Principia Mathematica, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his penultimate Reith lecture, entitled 'Control and Initiative: Their Respective Spheres', Bertrand Russell considers which matters should be controlled by the state in a healthy and progressive society, and what should be left to private initiative. He argues that in our complex world, there cannot be fruitful initiative without government, but nor can there be government without initiative.

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The Conflict of Technique and Human Nature

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Jan 16, 1949


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, he is the author of Principia Mathematica, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his fourth lecture, entitled 'The Conflict of Technique and Human Nature', he examines what part human nature has played in the development of civilised society, and argues that poverty, suffering and cruelty are no longer necessary to the existence of civilisation. He believes these can be eliminated with the help of modern science, provided it operates in a humane spirit, and with an understanding of the springs of happiness and life.

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The Role of Individuality

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Jan 09, 1949


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, he is the author of Principia Mathematica, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his third lecture, entitled 'The Role of Individuality', he considers the importance of individual initiative to a community, and argues for flexibility, local autonomy, and less centralisation in society. Modern organisations, he says, must be more flexible and less oppressive to the human spirit if life is to be saved from boredom.

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Social Cohesion and Government

Author: BBC Radio 4
Sun, Jan 02, 1949


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, he is the author of Principia Mathematica, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his second lecture, entitled 'Social Cohesion and Government', he examines how forms of social cohesion have developed throughout history and considers the effects of increasing state control, as exemplified by Soviet Russia.

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Social Cohesion and Human Nature

Author: BBC Radio 4
Fri, Dec 24, 1948


The inaugural Reith Lecturer is the philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer Bertrand Russell. One of the founders of analytic philosophy and a Nobel Laureate, Russell's pupils included Wittgenstein, and his most influential work, Principia Mathematica, set out to show how mathematics was grounded in logic. He also wrote On Denoting, one of the most significant philosophical essays of the 20th century, and the bestselling History of Western Philosophy, written in 1946. His Reith lecture series is entitled 'Authority and the Individual'. In his first lecture, entitled 'Social Cohesion and Human Nature', Russell explores the role of impulses in human nature. He charts the way these impulses have manifested themselves throughout history, from very primitive communities through to more 'civilised' societies.

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